Army Manual - Signal Soldiers Guide

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The fifth platoon stands fast; the others face to the center; the officers post themselves at the head of their platoons, and break off; and on receiving the word. When this column is to be formed with the left in front, the four platoons on the right form in the rear, and the three on the left form in front. In all formations and displaying, the officers whose platoons march by the left, so soon as they have dressed their platoons in line or column, return to their posts on the right. At this caution the officer of the platoon in front posts a sergeant on each flank of it, who are to remain there till the platoon on which the column displays, has taken its post in the line, when they retire along the rear of the battalion to their platoon.

The four front platoons face to the right, the fifth stands fast, and the sixth, seventh and eighth face to the left. The four platoons of the right march to the right, the first platoon taking care to march straight towards the point of view; so soon as the fourth has unmasked the fifth, its officer commands,. And it marches up to its post in the line; the third and second platoon, as soon as they have respectively gained their distances, proceed in the same manner; and then the first halts and dresses with them; the fifth platoon in the mean time marches to its post between the two sergeants; and the three platoons of the left form by marching obliquely to their posts in the line, as before explained.

When a column is formed by the right, and the nature of the ground will not permit its being displayed to the left, it may be displayed to the right in the following manner:. The eighth platoon stands fast, the rest face to the right, and march, the first platoon keeping the line; so soon as the eighth platoon is unmasked, it marches forward to its post between the two sergeants of the first platoon, left there for that purpose; the seventh platoon, having gained its distance, halts, fronts and marches up to its ground; the other platoons proceed in the same manner, as explained in the display from the center.

A column formed either by the right, left or center, may, according to the ground, or any other circumstance, be displayed on any particular platoon, on the principles before explained. Are formed by wheeling to the right or left by platoons; and, when indispensably necessary, by marching the platoon by files, in the following manner:. Each platoon marches to its place in the column, the officers taking care to preserve the proper distances between their platoons. Open columns may in the same manner be formed by the left, center, of any particular platoon, the officers taking care to preserve their proper distances.

Open columns are formed again in line, either by wheeling by platoons, or by closing columns and displaying, as explained in the articles on close columns.

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On which the platoons march by the quick step, and close to within two paces of each other; when the commanding officer of platoons successively command. On which the front platoon advances, followed by the others successively, as fast as they have their distances. The different manners or forming and displaying columns being the basis of all maneuvers, require the greatest attention of both officers and men in the execution.

The officers must by frequent practice learn to judge of distances with the greatest exactness; as an augmentation or diminution of the proper distance between the platoons, is attended with much confusion in forming a line. They must also be very careful not to advance beyond the line, in forming battalion, but dress their platoons carefully with the points of view.

The changing the front of a platoon, division, or even a battalion, may be performed by a simple wheeling; that of a brigade must be performed by first forming the open column, then marching it into the direction required, and forming the line. If it be necessary to change the front of a line consisting of more than a brigade, the simplest and surest method is to form close columns, either by brigades or battalions, march them to the direction required, and display. The march of columns is an operation so often repeated, and of so much consequence, that it must be considered as an essential article in the instruction of both officers and men.

The whole column must always begin to march, and halt, at the same time, and only by order of the commanding officer. After the first twenty paces he should command. When the men may march more at their ease, but keeping their files close. Before the column halts, he should command. When marching in open column, the officer commanding will often form battalion, by wheeling to the right or left, in order to see if the officers have preserved the proper distances between the platoons. When a close column is obliged to change the direction of its march, the front platoon must not wheel round on its flank, but advance in a direction more or less circular, according to the depth of the columns, that the other platoons may follow.

An open column changes the direction of its march by wheeling the front platoons, the others following; in doing which, the officers commanding platoons must be particularly careful that their platoons wheel on the same ground with the front platoon; for which purpose a sergeant should be left to mark the pivot on which they are to wheel. A column on its march coming to a defile, which obliges it to diminish its front, the officer commanding the first platoon commands.

On which the those files which cannot pass, break off, face inwards, and follow their platoons by files, and as the defile narrows or widens more files will break off, or join the platoon: The succeeding platoons proceed in the same manner. If the defile is difficult or long, so soon as the front have passed and gained sufficient ground, they will halt till the whole have passed and formed, when they will continue the march. When the commanding officer thinks himself in danger of being attacked by cavalry, he must close the column, and on their approach, halt and face outwards; the front platoon standing fast, the rear platoon going to the right about, and the others facing outwards from their centers.

In case of attack, the two first ranks keep up a smart running fire, beginning as well as ending by a signal from the drum. The soldiers must be told, that under these circumstances, their safety depends wholly on their courage; the cavalry being only to be dreaded when the infantry cease to resist them. When the column is to continue its march, the officer commands. At this caution the ensign with the colors advances six paces; the sergeant who covered him taking his place. The whole are to dress by the colors. The commandant of the battalion will be posted two paces in front of the colors, and will give the ensign an object to serve as a direction for him to march straight forward.

The ensign who carries the colors will be careful to march straight to the object given him by the colonel; to do which, he must fix on some intermediate object. If many battalions are in the line, the ensigns must dress by the ensign of the center; if only two, they will dress by each other. They must be very careful not to advance beyond the battalion they are to dress by, it being much easier to advance than to fall back. Should the battalion by any cause be hindered from advancing in line with the rest, the ensign of that battalion must drop his colors, as a signal to the other battalions who might otherwise stop to dress by them not to conform to their movements; the colors to be raised again when the battalion has advanced to its post in the line.

The commanding officer of each battalion must be careful that his men dress and keep their files close, and to preserve the proper distances between his own battalion and those on his flanks; and when he finds that he is too near the one or the other he must command. When the battalion will march by the oblique step, as ordered, till they have recovered their distance, and receive the command.

If the distance is augmented or diminished only two or three paces, the commanding officer will order the colors to incline a little, and then march forward; the battalion conforming to their movement. The officers commanding platoons will continually have an eye over them, immediately remedying any defect, carefully dressing with the center, and keeping step with the colors.

The officers in the rear must take care of the second rank, remedying any defect in a low voice, and with as little noise as possible. The soldier must not advance out of the rank the shoulder opposite the side he dresses to; he must not crowd his right or left hand man, but give way to the pressure of the center, and resist that of the wings; he must have his eyes continually fixed on the colors, turning his head more or less, in proportion to his distance from them. The line charge their bayonets, and quicken their step; the drums beat the long roll; and the officers and men must take care to dress to the center, and not crowd or open their files.

On which the files obstructed face outwards from their center, and follow by files the platoons on their right and left; if the platoons on the wings are obstructed, they will face inwards, and follow in the same manner. In proportion as the ground permits, the files will march up to their places in front, dress, and take step with the colors. A battalion marching and meeting with a bridge or defile, over or through which not more than the front of a division can pass at a time, the commanding officer orders. On which they pass the defile in one division. As soon as those two platoons have marched, the commanding officer orders.

They march till they join, fronting the defile; when the commanding officer of the two platoons commands. And they pass the defile; the rest following in the same manner. As soon as the front division has passed, it will halt; and the other divisions, as fast as they arrive in the rear, face outwards, and march by files till they come to their proper places in battalion; when the officers commanding the platoon order.

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If the defile will not permit more than four files to pass, the four files before which the defile presents itself enter without any word of command; the rest face inwards, and follow them; the whole marching through by files. As soon as the files which first entered, have passed, they halt; the others, as fast as they pass, marching to their places in battalion.

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If it is at any time necessary to pass a defile in the rear, in presence of an enemy, the line must march as near as possible to the defile; when the commanding officer orders. The two platoons wheel by files, and march along the rear of the battalion to the entrance of the defile; where joining, their officers command. The platoon of the right wing faces to the left; the other platoon faces to the right; and both pass in one division; the other platoons following in the same manner, except those of the center.

When all have entered but the two center platoons, that on the right faces to the right about, and marches twenty paces into the defile; when the officer commands.

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The three platoons of the right wing wheel to the left; those of the left wing wheel to the right; and having gained their proper distances, the commanding officer orders. The right wing wheels to the left, and the left to the right; which forms the battalion. If the defile should present itself behind any other part of the battalion, the platoons farthest off must always retreat first; and if the defile becomes narrower than at the entrance, the platoons must double behind each other.

This maneuver is performed in the same manner as the preceding, except that, instead of forming at the entrance, the platoons pass by files; and having passed, face to the right and left, march till they have their proper distances, and then wheel and form battalion. The passage of defiles may be executed at first in the common step, for the introduction of the troops; in service, always in the quick step.

The passage of defiles being difficult in presence of an enemy, the officers must be particularly careful to keep the files closed; to be quick in giving the words of command; and not lose any time in the execution.

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When the sentry before the guard challenges, and is answered Grand rounds! The preservation of the arms and ammunition is an object that requires the greatest attention. He must have a watchful eye over the officers, and oblige them to do their duty on every occasion; he must often cause them to be exercised in his presence, and instruct them how to command their platoons and preserve their distances. The officers and colors salute when within eight paces of the general; and the colonel having saluted, advances to him. The Signal Center can connect them with its classroom staff and help resolve the problem, and it also establishes relationships between personnel in the two different locations. The general review over, the colonel commands. At relief the guard must parade, and the roll be called; and during the night and when near the enemy, during the day the guard must remain under arms till the relief returns.

The maneuver should always be covered by troops posted on each side the defile, and on every advantageous piece of ground that presents itself, to annoy and keep back the enemy. The second line, if not already formed in columns, will immediately, on perceiving the first line retire, form in that order by brigades or battalions; and the first line having passed the intervals between the columns, the second line will display; or, if too closely pressed by the enemy, attack in columns the flanks of the battalion which pursue, thereby giving time for the first line to form and take a new position.

The field-pieces attached to the different brigades must always remain with them, encamping on their right, unless the quartermaster general thinks proper to place them on any advantageous piece of ground in front. When the army marches by the right, the field-pieces must march at the head of their respective brigades; when it marches by the left, they follow in the rear, unless circumstances determine the general to order otherwise; but, whether they march in front, center or rear of their brigades, they must always march between the battalions, and never between the platoons.

In maneuvering they must also follow their brigades, performing the maneuvers and evolutions with them; observing that, when the close column is formed, they must always proceed to the flank of the column opposed to that side their brigade is to display to; and on the columns displaying, they follow the first division of their brigade; and when that halts and forms, the field-pieces immediately take their posts on its right. When the troops are to exercise with powder, the officers must carefully inspect the arms and cartridge boxes, and take away all the cartridges with ball.

The first part of the general will be the signal for all firing to cease; on the beating of which the officers and non-commissioned officers must see that their platoons cease firing, load and shoulder as quick as possible. The commanding officer will continue the signal till he sees that the men have loaded and shouldered. If there be more than one battalion to fire, they are to do it in succession from right to left; but after the first round, the odd battalion fire so soon as the respective battalions on their left begin to shoulder; and the even battalions fire when the respective battalions on their right begin to shoulder.

The firing by platoons is also executed in the same order in the wings of the battalion, beginning with the right of each: that is, the first and fifth platoons give the first fire, the second and sixth the second fire, the third and seventh the third fire, and the fourth and eighth the fourth fire; after which they fire as before prescribed. When a battalion is obliged to retire, it must march as long as possible; but if pressed by the enemy and obliged to make use of its fire, the commanding officer will order,.

The greatest attention on the part of the officers is necessary at all times, but more particularly on the march: the soldiers being then permitted to march at their ease, with the ranks and files open, without the greatest care, these get confounded one with another; and if suddenly attacked, instead of being able to form immediately in order of battle, the whole line is thrown into the utmost confusion. The order of the march of an army being given, the adjutant general will appoint the field officers for the advanced and rear guards, and issue order to the brigade majors to have ready their respective quotas of other officers and men for the advanced guard, which will consist of the number necessary for the guards of the new camp.

These, together with a pioneer of each company, and a sergeant from the regiment to conduct them, must be warned the evening before. At the beating of the general, the troops are immediately to strike their tents, and load the waggons, which must then fall into the line of march for the baggage. At this signal also all general and staff officers guards, and those of the commissaries, must return to their respective regiments. At the beating of the assembly, the troops will assemble, and be formed in battalion on their respective parades.

The guards ordered, must then be conducted by the brigade majors, or adjutants of the day, to the rendezvous appointed for the advanced guard, where the field officers warned for that duty, will form them in battalions, or other corps, according to their strength, and divide them regularly into divisions and platoons. The officer commanding the advanced guard, must take care to have a guide with him, and to get every necessary information about the road. The camp guards must at the same time retire to the rendezvous appointed for the rear guard, where they must be formed in the same manner.

At the same time also the quartermasters and pioneers of each battalion must assemble on the ground appointed for the advanced guard, where one of the deputies of the quartermaster general must form them in platoons, in the same order as their respective battalions march in the column. Each detachment will be conducted by its quartermaster, who must be answerable that it marches in the order prescribed; and the quartermasters of brigades will conduct those of their respective brigades, and be answerable for their behavior.

The signal for marching being given, the whole will wheel by platoons or sections, as shall be ordered, and begin the march. The pioneers are to march behind the advanced guard, and must repair the roads, that the column may be obliged to file off as little as possible. The advanced guard, besides its patrols in front, must have flank guard, composed of a file from each platoon, and commanded by an officer, or non-commissioned officer, to march at the distance of one hundred paces on the flank, and keep up with the head of the advanced guard.

If it be necessary to have a flank guard on each side, a file must be sent from the other flank of each platoon to compose it; and as this service is fatiguing, the men should be relieved every hour. The like flank guards are to be detached from each battalion, in the column. For the greater convenience of the soldiers, the ranks must be opened to half distance during the march. When the column meets with a defile, or any obstacle, the commanding officer must stop till the column has passed it, taking care that they pass in as great order and as quick as possible; and when one half have marched through, he must command the front to halt, till the whole have passed and formed, when he will continue the march.

When a column crosses a road that leads to the enemy, the patrols or guards on the flanks of the first battalion must form on the road, and halt till the patrols of the next battalion come up, which must do the same: the others proceed in the same manner, till the whole have passed. On the march no orders are to communicated by calling out, but must be sent by the adjutants from regiment to regiment. The signals for halting, marching slower and quicker, must be given by the beat of drum see chapter XXI.

The commanding officer of the advanced guard being informed by the quartermaster general, of his deputy, of the ground the troops are to encamp on, will go a head and reconnoiter it; and immediately on the arrival of the advanced guard, post his guards and sentinels as directed in Chapter XXII. The roads being very often too narrow to admit the front of a platoon, and the troops being therefore continually obliged to break off, which fatigues the men; to prevent this, when the road is not sufficiently large throughout, the battalions may be divided into sections in the following manner: Each platoon is to be told off into sections of four files; if there remain three files, they form a section; if two files, or less, they form one rank.

At the word,. They wheel by fours and march, the second rank of each section taking two paces distance from the front rank. The officers commanding platoons take post on the left of their first section; but on the right, if the sections wheel to the left. The file-closers fall in on the flanks. The officers must take great care that the distance of two paces, and no more, is kept between the ranks. The front rank of each section stops short and the second rank closes up, which gives the proper distance between the sections; and by wheeling to the right or left the line is formed: or if the commanding officer chooses, he may form platoons by the oblique step.

If a column be already on the march by platoons, and the road becomes too narrow and inconvenient to continue in that order, it may be formed into sections of four, in the following manner:. The sections on the right of each platoon incline by the oblique step to the left; and those on the left of each platoon, following the former, incline to the right, till they all cover; when they march forward, opening the ranks as before directed.

If the number of sections in a platoon be uneven, that in the center is to march straight forward; the sections on the right inclining to the left, and covering it in front; and those on the left inclining to the right, and covering it in the rear. The inconvenience arising to an army from having to great a number of wagons, must be evident to every officer; and it is expected, that for the future each officer will curtail his baggage as much as possible. The order of march for the army will always determine that for baggage; and, whatever place it may occupy in the line of march, the wagons must always follow in the same order as their respective regiments.

The quartermaster general, or his deputy, will give the order of march for the baggage, and the commander in chief will order an escort, to be commanded by a field officer, according to its strength. An officer of each battalion must be appointed to superintend the striking of the tents, and loading the wagons: he must see that the tents are properly tied up; that no provisions or other articles are packed in them; and that the tent poles are tied in a bundle by themselves: he must not suffer the wagons to be overloaded, or any thing put into them but what is allowed; and when the wagons are loaded, he must send them with the quartermaster sergeant to the rendezvous of the brigade.

The sergeant is to remain with the baggage of his regiment, to see that the wagons follow in order; and if a wagon breaks down, it must be put out of the line, that it may not impede the march of the rest. Each regiment will furnish a non-commissioned officer to conduct the sick and lame who are not able to march with their regiments.

These men are to repair, at the beating of the general, to the rendezvous appointed, where a sufficient number of empty wagons will be ordered to attend for the reception of their knapsacks, and their arms if necessary. A surgeon of each brigade is to attend the sick belonging to it. The commanding officer of each battalion will inspect the sick before they are sent from the battalion, in order that none may be sent but those who are really incapable of marching with their regiments.

And the officers commanding the escort will be answerable that no soldiers are permitted to march with the baggage on any pretense whatever, except the quartermaster sergeant of each regiment, as before directed. No wagons are to be permitted to go between the battalions or brigades, except the ammunition wagons. The wagons of the park, and others, are to be conducted agreeably to the foregoing direction, and the necessary officers furnished to keep order on the march. When the quartermasters arrive on the ground where the troops are to encamp, the quartermaster general having fixed his line of encampment, will conduct them along the line, and give each brigade quartermaster the ground necessary for his brigade.

The quartermasters of the regiments will then have their ground given them by the brigade quartermasters, and will mark out the place for each company and tent, and for the kitchens etc. The infantry will on all occasions encamp by battalions, as they are formed in the order of battle.

The front of the camp will occupy the same extent of ground as the troops when formed; and the intervals between the battalions will be twenty paces, with an addition of eight paces for every piece of cannon a battalion may have. The quartermaster of each regiment shall be answerable that he demands no more ground than is necessary for the number of men he has actually with the regiment, allowing two feet for each file, exclusive of the officers, and adding sixteen feet for the intervals between the platoons.

He is also to be answerable that no more tents are pitched than are absolutely necessary, allowing one tent for the non-commissioned officers of each company, and one for every six men, including the drums and fifes. The tents of the non-commissioned officers and privates are to be pitched in two ranks, with an interval of six paces between the ranks, and two feet between each tent: the tents of the non-commissioned officers to be in the front rank, on the right of their companies, in the right wing, and on the left in the left wing of the battalion. Nine feet front are to be allowed for each tent with its interval, and twenty feet in the center of the battalion for the adjutant; but when a regiment forms two battalions, the adjutant is to encamp with the first battalion, the sergeant major supplying his place in the second.

The captains and subalterns tents are to be in one line, twenty feet from the rear of the mens tents; the captain in the right wing opposite the right of their respective companies, and the subalterns opposite the left; and the contrary in the left wing. But if the regiment forms two battalions, the colonel encamps behind the center of the first battalion; the lieutenant colonel behind the second battalion; and the major behind the interval between the two battalions. The surgeon, paymaster and quartermaster, encamp in one line, with the front of their tents in a line with the rear of the field officers tents; the surgeon on the right, the paymaster on the left, and the quartermaster in the center.

The kitchens are to be dug behind their respective companies, forty feet from the field officers tents. The camp guards are to be three hundred paces in front of the first line, and the same distance in the rear of the second line. The quarter guard is to be forty feet from the wagons, opposite the interval between the two battalions who furnish it. The sinks of the first line are to be three hundred feet in front, and those of the second line the same distance in the rear of the camp. The commanding officers of regiments are to be answerable that no tents are pitched out of the line of encampment on any account whatever, except for the regimental hospital.

The ground being marked out, the quartermasters will leave the pioneers, and go to meet their regiments, conduct them to their ground, and inform the colonel where they are to go for their necessaries. The head of the column arriving at the entrance of the camp, the commanding officer of the first battalion will command. On which the men carry their arms, and the drums beat a march; and the officers will see that their platoons have their proper distances, close the ranks and files, and each dress the flank on which his platoon is to wheel, with the same flank of the platoon preceding.

The other battalions observe the same directions, and keep their proper distances from each other. The general or officer commanding must take great care to march the troops in a direct line along the front of the camp, and at such a distance as to give sufficient room for the largest platoons to march clear of the line of tents. As the battalions respectively arrive in front of their ground, they halt, from the battalion, dressing with the right and order or support their arms. The adjutants immediately turn out the piquets that they may have been ordered, form them in front of their respective battalions, and send them to the rendezvous appointed.

The piquets being sent off, the commanding officers of battalions command their men to pile their arms, and dismiss them to pitch their tents. As soon as a company have pitched their tents, the captains parade them, and they fetch in their arms. The tents of the battalion being all pitched, the adjutant will form the detachments for necessaries, and send them off. In the mean time the commanding officer of the battalion, having examined the ground, will, if necessary, order out a party to open the communications on the right and left; in front for the troops, and in the rear for the baggage.

When a regiment enters a camp, the field officers must take care that the encampment is pitched regularly; that the sinks and kitchens are immediately dug in their proper places; and that no tents are pitched in any part of the camp contrary to the order prescribed. At least one officer of a company must remain on the parade to see that the tents are pitched regularly on the ground marked out. The tents should be marked with the name of each regiment and company, to prevent their being lost or exchanged, and the tents of each company numbered; and each non-commissioned officer should have a list of the tents, with the mens names belonging to each.

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FM i. Field Manual. No. Headquarters. Department of the Army. Washington, DC 17 March SIGNAL SOLDIER'S GUIDE. FM Signal Soldier's Guide, FM Signal Soldier's Guide, by: United States. Department of the Army. Publication.

The utensils belonging to the tents are to be carried alternately by the men; and the non-commissioned officers of the squads are to be answerable that they are not lost or spoiled. Whenever a regiment is to remain more than one night on the same ground, the soldiers must be obliged to cut a small trench round their tents, to carry off the rain; but great care must be taken they do not throw the dirt up against the tents.

One officer of a company must every day visit the tents; see that they are kept clean; that every utensil belonging to them is in proper order; and that no bones or other filth be in or near them: and when the weather is fine, should order them to be struck about two hours at noon, and the straw and bedding well aired. The soldiers should not be permitted to eat in their tents, except in bad weather; and an officer of a company must often visit the messes; see that the provision is good and well cooked; that the men of one tent mess together; and that the provision is not sold or disposed of for liquor.

A subaltern, four non-commissioned officers and a drummer must every day be appointed for the police of each battalion, who are on no account to be absent during the time they are on duty. The officer of the police is to make a general inspection into the cleanliness of the camp, not suffer fire to be made any where but in the kitchens, and cause all dirt to be immediately removed, and either burnt or buried. He is to be present at all distributions in the regiment, and to form and send off all detachments for necessaries.

When any of the men want water, they must apply to the officer of the police, who will order the drum to beat the necessary signal; on which all who want water must immediately parade with their canteens before the colors, where the officer of the police will form and send them off under the care of two non-commissioned officers of the police, who are to be answerable that they bring back the whole detachment, and that no excesses are committed whilst they are out.

Wood and all other necessaries must be fetched in the same manner. Except in case of necessity, not more than one detachment is to be out at a time. The quartermaster must be answerable that the parade and environs of the encampment of a regiment are kept clean; that the sinks are filled up, and new ones dug every four days, and oftener in warm weather; and if any horse or other animal dies near the regiment, he must cause it to be carried at least a half mile from camp, and buried.

The place where the cattle are killed must be at least fifty paces in the rear of the wagons; and the entrails and other filth immediately buried; for which the commissaries are to be answerable. The quartermaster general must take care that all dead animals, and every other nuisance in the environs of the camp, be removed.

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No non-commissioned officer or soldier shall be permitted to pass the chain of sentinels round the camp, without permission in writing from the commanding officer of his regiment or battalion; which permission shall be dated the same day, and shall, on the return of the person to whom it was granted, be delivered to the adjutant, who is to return it to the colonel or commanding officer with his report.

Every detachment not conducted by a commissioned officer, shall have written permission from a field officer, or officer commanding a regiment, or the officer of the police if it be a detachment going for necessaries; without which they are not be permitted to pass the chain. All officers whatever are to make it a point of duty to stop every non-commissioned officer or soldier they meet without the chain, and examine his pass; and if he has not a sufficient pass, or having one is committing an excess, the officer must conduct him to the nearest guard, from whence he must be sent with his crime, to his regiment.

The sentinel before the colors must have orders, in case he hears any alarm in camp, or at the advanced posts, to acquaint the adjutant with it; who will inform the commanding officer of the battalion, or order an alarm beat, if the case requires it. The rolls shall be called in each battalion at troop and retreat beating, at which times the men are to parade with their arms; and at the beating of reveille, and at noon, the commanding officers of companies shall cause the rolls of their respective companies to be called, the men parading for that purpose without arms, and to be detained no loner than is necessary to call the roll.

The non-commissioned officers are to visit their respective squads a quarter of an hour after tattoo beating; see that they are all present and retired to rest; and make their report to the commanding officer of the company. No non-commissioned officer of soldier is to be absent from roll-call without permission from the commanding officer of the company. No commissioned officer is to be absent from roll-call without permission from the commanding officer of the regiment.

The oftener the soldiers are under the inspection of their officers the better; for which reason every morning at troop beating they must inspect into the dress of their men; see that their clothes are whole and put on properly; their hands and faces washed clean; their hair combed; their accoutrements properly fixed, and every article about them in the greatest order. Those who are guilty of repeated neglects in these particulars are to be confined and punished. That the men may always appear clean on the parade, and as means of preserving their health, the non-commissioned officers are to see that they wash their hands and faces every day, and oftener when necessary.

And when any river is nigh, and the season favorable, the men shall bathe themselves as frequently as possible, the commanding officers of each battalion sending them by small detachments successively, under the care of a non-commissioned officer; but on no account must the men be permitted to bathe when just come off a march, at least till they have reposed long enough to get cool.

FM 6-02.43 Signal Soldier's Guide, 2009

That the men may not be improperly burdened and fatigued, the captains are not to suffer them to carry any thing which is either useless or unnecessary. The General is to be beat only when the whole are to march, and is the signal to strike the tents, and prepare to march. The Reveille is beat at day-break, and is the signal for the soldiers to rise, and the centuries to leave off challenging. The Troop assembles the soldiers together, for the purpose of calling the roll and inspecting the men for duty. The Retreat is beat at sun-set, for calling the roll, warning the men for duty, and reading the orders of the day.

The Tattoo is for the soldiers to repair to their tents, where they must remain till reveille beating next morning. Front to halt- two flams from right to left, and a full drag with the right, a left hand flam and a right hand full drag. The drummers will practice a hundred paces in front of the battalion, at the hours fixed by the adjutant general; and any drummer found beating at any other time except ordered shall be punished.

The piquet guards are formed by detachments from the line, and are posted at the avenues of the camp, in such numbers as the general commanding thinks necessary for the security of the camp. The camp and quarter guards are for the better security of the camp, as wall as for preserving good order and discipline. The camp guard of the front line is to be posted three hundred paces in front of it, and that of the second line the same distance in the rear of the second line, each opposite the interval of the two battalions who furnish it.

Each guard will post nine sentinels, viz. In order to complete the chain of sentinels round the camp, the adjutant general will order two flank guards from the line, to consist of a commissioned officer, and as men as are necessary to form a chain on the flanks. The intention of the camp guards being to form a chain of sentinels round the camp, in order to prevent improper persons entering, or the soldiers going out of camp, the commanding officers of brigades will add to, or diminish them, so as to answer the above purpose. The quarter guard is to be posted twenty paces in the rear of the line of wagons, and will furnish three sentinels; viz.

Any additional guard to the quartermaster, commissary, or clothier general, will be determined by the stores they may have in possession. The different guards are all to mount at one hour, to be regulated by the commanding officer for the time being. The camp and quarter guards are to parade before the interval of their battalions, where they will be formed by the adjutant who furnishes the officer, and immediately sent off to their respective posts. The guard of a major general is to be furnished from his own division, each brigade furnishing it by turns; it is to be formed by the major of brigade, and sent from the brigade parade.

The guard of a brigadier general is to be furnished by his own brigade, and formed and sent from the brigade parade by the major of the brigade. The other guards being composed of detachments from the line by brigades, each detachment is formed on the brigade parade by the major of brigade, and sent with an adjutant to the grand parade.

All guards except those which are honorary should ordinarily be of force proportioned to the number of sentinels required, allowing three relieves for each post. As soon as a detachment arrives on the grand parade, the officers having dressed the ranks commands:. And then takes post eight paces in front of his detachment; the non-commissioned officers fall two paces into the rear, except one who remains on the right of every detachment.

Each detachment takes post on the left of that preceding it, and is examined by the brigade major to the day as it arrives. When the whole are assembled, the adjutant of the day dresses the line, counts the files from right to left, and takes post on the right. The officers then march to the center and form themselves, according to seniority, in one rank, sixteen paces in front of the guards; the non-commissioned officers advance and form two ranks, four paces in the rear of the officers, and with the same distance between their ranks.

The brigade major then appoints the officers and non-commissioned officers to their posts. The non-commissioned officers are posted thus: A sergeant on the right of each platoon, and one on the left of the whole; the rest as file-closers equally divided to each platoon.

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Whilst this is doing, the adjutant divides the guard into eight platoons, leaving proper intervals between the platoons for the officers who are to command them. The brigade major then advances to the general officer of the day, informs him that the battalion is formed, and takes his directions relative to the exercise. The general of the day will usually order the manual exercise to be performed, and some maneuvers, such as he thinks proper; the major of brigade of the day giving the words of command.

The drums then beat from right to left of the parade, and passing behind the officers of the day, take post on their left. They advance as before to the center, and the brigade major appoints them to their respective guards, takes the name of the officer commanding each guard, and gives him the parole and countersign. The adjutant having in the mean time told off the guards, and divided them into platoons, the brigade major then commands,.

And advancing to the general, acquaints him that the guards are formed; and on receiving his orders to march them off, he commands,. The whole wheel, and march by the general, the officers saluting him as they pass; and when the whole have passed, they wheel off and march to their respective posts. The guards in camp will be relieved every hours. The guards without the limits of the camp will ordinarily be relieved in the same manner; but this must depend on their distances from camp, and other circumstances, which may sometimes require their continuing on duty for several days.

In this case they must be previously notified to provide themselves accordingly. The guards are to march in the greatest order to their respective posts, marching by platoons, whenever the roads will permit. When the new guard approaches the post, they carry their arms; and the officer of the old guard, having his guard paraded, on the approach of the new guard, commands,.

The new guard marches past the old guard, and takes post three or four paces on its right both guards fronting towards the enemy; and the officer command,. The two officers then approach each other, and the relieving officer takes his orders from the relieved. Both officers then return to their guards, and commands,. The sergeant of the new guard then tells off as many sentinels as are necessary; and the corporal of the new guard, conducted by a corporal of the old guard, relieves the sentinels, beginning by the guard house.

When the sentinel sees the relief approach, he presents his arms, and the corporal halting his relief at six paces distance, commands,. This last command is only for the sentinel relieving, and the one to be relieved; the former immediately approaching with the corporal, and having received his orders from the old sentry, takes his place; and the sentry relieved marches into the ranks, placing himself on the left of the rear rank.

If the sentries are numerous, the sergeants are to be employed as well as the corporals in relieving them. When the corporal returns with the old sentinels, he leads them before the old guard, and dismisses them to their ranks. The officer of the old guard then forms his guard in the same manner as when he mounted, and marches them in order to camp. As soon as he arrives in the camp, he halts, forms the men of the different brigades together, and sends them to their respective brigades, conducted by a non-commissioned officer, of careful soldier.

When the old guard march off, the new guard present their arms, till they are gone, then shoulder, face to the left, and take the place of the old guard. The officer then orders a non-commissioned officer to take down the names of the guard, in the following manner Chart with rows signifying Post Numbers, and columns signifying hours they go on. The relief of sentries is always to be marched in the greatest order, and with supported arms, the corporal often looking back to observe the conduct of the men; and if an officer approaches, his is to order his men to handle their arms, supporting them again when he has passed.

The corporals are to be answerable that the sentries, when relieving, perform their motions with the greatest spirit and exactness. A corporal who is detected in having the insolence to suffer sentries to relieve each other, without his being present, shall, as well as the sentry so relieved, be severely punished.

On the vigilance of the officer depends not only the safety of his guard, but that of the whole army. As it is highly necessary an officer should have some knowledge of his situation, he must, immediately after relieving the old guard, visit the sentinels, and examine the ground round his post; and if he thinks the sentries not sufficient to secure him from a surprise, he is at liberty to place more, acquainting therewith the general or field officer of the day who visits his post; but without their leave he is not to alter any that are already posted.

He must cause the roads leading to the enemy and to the next posts to be well reconnoitered by an officer of the guard, or for want of one, by an intelligent non-commissioned officer and some faithful men, inform himself of every thing necessary for his security, and use every possible precaution against a surprise.

He must permit no stranger to enter his post, nor suffer his men to talk with him. If a suspicious person, or a deserter from the enemy approaches, he must stop him and send him to head-quarters, or to a superior officer.

U. S. Army Signal Officer

He must on no account suffer the soldiers to pull off their accoutrements, of straggle more than twenty paces from the guard; and if water or any other necessaries are wanted for the guard, they must be sent for by a non-commissioned officer and some men with their arms if at an outpost on no account suffering a soldier to go by himself; but never whilst the sentinels are relieving.

He must examine every relief before it is sent off; see that their arms are loaded and in order, and that the men are acquainted with their duty; and if by any accident a man should get the least disguised with liquor, he must on no account be suffered to go on sentry. At relief the guard must parade, and the roll be called; and during the night and when near the enemy, during the day the guard must remain under arms till the relief returns.

During the day the men may be permitted to rest themselves as much as is consistent with the safety of the guard; but in the night, no man must be suffered to lay down or sleep on any account, but have his arms constantly in his hands, and be ready to fall in on the least alarm. Between every relief the sentries must be visited by a non-commissioned officer and a file of men; and, when more than one officer is on guard, as often as possible by an officer. A patrol also must be frequently sent on the roads leading to the enemy. During the day, the sentinels on the outposts must stop every party of men, whether armed or not, till they have been examined by the officer of the guard.

As soon as it is dark, the countersign must be given to the sentinels of the piquets and advanced posts, after which they are to challenge all that approach them; and if any person, after being ordered to stand, should continue to approach or attempt to escape, the sentry, after challenging him three times, must fire on him. For another two decades, a motley assortment of fitness evaluations and standards proliferated throughout the Army. At various points in time there were specialty tests for combat and support forces, as well as indoor and outdoor exams.

When the current Army physical-fitness test was introduced in , unifying the service under a single mandatory examination, it replaced no fewer than seven specialized physical-fitness assessments. Commanders were warned not to allow the test to completely dictate their training regimens. It was designed to reflect the baseline conditioning a soldier needed to begin tactical training, not to be a total fitness program. But the Army steadily increased the minimum and maximum scores, tying promotions to high scores and prescribing involuntary discharges for repeat failures.

Tactical training, like road marches and obstacle courses, slipped as graded events took priority. Leaders gave their soldiers every opportunity to succeed in their careers, even if it hurt combat readiness. In , Nike began selling its groundbreaking Waffle Trainer, which opened up running to new body types and popularized running as a fitness activity for everyone.

The move to sneakers and shorts melded well with the tracksuit era, but it further distanced the test from the battlefield. The measure of a soldier became less about their participation on a functional team and more about running two miles in 16 minutes. After three decades in thrall to a physical-fitness test that had little to do with the rigors of deployment, the Army set out to build its newest fitness test on a foundation of data and experience. Six years of research and development have already been devoted to making it more strenuous and reflective of combat.

In spite of all the science and seriousness, the new combat-fitness test is not immune to the influence of cultural attitudes and fads. The shared ingredients include the emphasis on movements with weights, a variety of exercises and their value for building a sense of purpose and camaraderie. The key difference, of course, is that encouraging someone to excel at the gym or out on a course may not be the same as preparing them to excel in combat. We know that the Army combat-fitness test will be a challenge for an Army population full of older troops who are strong and seasoned from deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan, but who also have a lot of injuries and might find the new test a tough adjustment.

We know that the test will remain an individual crucible, with scores tied to career progression.